Post-partum Hemorrhage and Anemia as its Modifiable Risk Factor: A Literature Review

Mekar Dwi Anggraeni, Rahmi Setiyani, Nina Setiawati


Maternal mortality is an indicator of a country’s health status. Postpartum hemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. Understanding the postpartum hemorrhage risk factors useful to develop strategy in order to reduce maternal mortality. The aim of this study was to find modifiable postpartum hemorrhage's risk factors. This study used 6 steps which include formulating the research questions and objectives, searching the extant literature, screening for inclusion, assessing the quality of primary studies, extracting data, and analyzing data. The article was searched from Google Scholar and NCBI databases using bilingual keywords: "faktor-faktor, perdarahan postpartum, risk factors, and postpartum hemorrhage". There were 1736 papers founded and only 14 articles met the inclusion criteria and included in the analysis. The review revealed that anemia, age, parity, birth passage laceration, obstetric history, multiple pregnancy, placental retention, prolonged labor, atonia uteri, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, section caesarian, placental complication, history of post-partum hemorrhage, episiotomy, high neonatal birth weight. Anemia is the only modifiable risk factor which may be prevented by nurses. 


Postpartum hemorrhage, risk factors, anemia

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